The Achilles tendon, the largest tendon in the body, connects the calf muscles to the heel bone and is used while walking, running and jumping. Peroneal tendons are two tendons that work to prevent the foot from turning inwards and help to balance the ankle and back of the foot. Tendinitis is the result once inflammation occurs from repetitive stress to a tendon, which may be caused by a sudden increase of exercise or having tight calf muscles. Symptoms can include pain along the tendon that worsens with activity, thickening of the tendon, bone spur, or swelling that is present all the time and gets worse through the day with activity. Nonsurgical treatment options may include rest, ice, physical therapy, eccentric strengthening protocol, cortisone injections, supportive shoes and orthotics or extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Surgical treatment options include gastrocnemius recession, debridement and repair, or debridement with tendon transfer.
A sprained ankle is a very common injury; approximately 25,000 people experience this each day. Ankle sprains occur when the foot twists, rolls or turns beyond its normal motions. Symptoms of this injury depend on the amount of stretching and tearing of the ligament. Instability may occur if there has been a complete tear or dislocation of the ligament. Treatment options may include RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation), ankle splint, cast-brace, rehabilitation, arthroscopy or reconstruction.
Fractures of the Ankle/Foot Bones
An ankle fracture occurs when one or more of the bones within the ankle joint are separated into pieces. This injury may occur from twisting or rolling the foot, falling, or a heavy impact. Common complaints for a fractured ankle include immediate and severe pain, swelling, bruising, tenderness, and deformity. Treatment options widely vary depending on the type of fracture. Each fracture may be treated surgically or non-surgically; a doctor can help to decide which option is right for you.
Heel spurs are common in patients that have a history of pain caused by plantar fasciitis. A heel spur is a hook of bone, only seen with an X-ray, which has formed on the heel bone. Heel spurs cause pain on the bottom of the heel when pressure is applied in some patients, but do not cause pain in others. Because plantar fasciitis and heel spurs are usually related, treatment is the same. Treatment options include rest, ice, gentle stretching, anti-inflammatory medication, shoe inserts, night splints, cortisone injections, or surgery if the heel spur is not resolved.
The plantar fascia is a thin ligament that connects the heel to the front of the foot and supports the foot's arch. Too much pressure on the ligament may cause damage, tear, or inflammation of this tissue, resulting in plantar fasciitis. Symptoms can include pain near the heel of the foot, pain within the first few steps after long periods of rest or increased pain after activity. Non-surgical treatment may include rest, ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, exercise, cortisone injections, supportive shoes and orthotics, night splints, physical therapy, or extracorporeal shockwave therapy. Surgical options include gastrocnemius recession or plantar fascia release.
Turf toe is a condition, which is usually the result of athletic activity on artificial turf, leading to pain at the base of the big toe. Turf toe is generally caused from either jamming the toe, pushing off repeatedly when running, or jumping. The most commonly reported symptom is pain at the base of the toe, but other symptoms may include stiffness and swelling. Treatment of the injury begins with a proper assessment of the extent of the injury. Treatment may include RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation), toe tape or steel shoe insert, or surgery to repair the toe.